mundari
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any of several Austroasiatic languages spoken by about 9,000,000 people (the Munda) in northern and central India. Some scholars divide the languages into two subfamilies: the North Munda (spoken in the Chota Nagpur Plateau of Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa) including Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, and Ho; and the South Munda (spoken in central Orissa and along the border between Andhra Pradesh and Orissa). The latter family is further split into Central Munda, including Kharia and Juang, and Koraput Munda, including Gutob, Remo, Sora (Savara), Juray, and Gorum. The classification of these languages is controversial.

North Munda (of which Santhali is the chief language) is the more important of the two groups; its languages are spoken by about nine-tenths of Munda speakers. After Santhali, the Mundari and Ho languages rank next in number of speakers, followed by Korku and Sora. The remaining Munda languages are spoken by small, isolated groups of people and are little known.

Characteristics of the Munda languages include three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), two gender classes (animate and inanimate) for nouns, and the use of either suffixes or auxiliaries for indicating the tenses of verb forms. In Munda sound systems, consonant sequences are infrequent, except in the middle of a word. Except in Korku, where syllables show a distinction between high and low tone, accent is predictable in the Munda languages.

North Munda South Munda
Central Munda Koraput Munda
Korku, Santali, Mundari, Bhumij, and Ho Kharia and Juang Gutob, Remo, Sora (Savara), Juray, and Gorum

Santali          Ho           Kharia 

Mundari

Population 2,069,000 in India (1997). Population includes 1,022,000 Mundari, 519,000 Munda, 528,000 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 2,074,700.
Region Assam; Jharkhand, mainly in southern and western parts of Ranchi District; Himachal Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa; Tripura; West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Nepal.
Alternate names   Mandari, Munari, Munda, Mondari, Horo, Colh, Killi
Dialects Hasada', Latar, Naguri, Kera', Bhumij (Sadar Bhumij, Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar). Related to Ho and Santali, but a separate language. 75% intelligibility of Ho. Lexical similarity 70% to 84% with Bhumij.
Classification Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 10% to 30%. Literacy rate in second language: 50% to 75%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 19101932.
Comments A Scheduled Tribe in India. There is Bhumij literature. Plateau. 600 meters. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Hindu.

Also spoken in:

Bangladesh

Language name   Mundari
Alternate names   Munda, Mandari, Munari, Horo, Mondari, Colh
Dialects Hasada', Latar, Naguri, Kera'.

Nepal

Language name   Mundari
Population 5,700 in Nepal (1993 Johnstone). Ethnic population: 660 Munda.
Region Mechi Zone, Jhapa District; Koshi Zone, Morang District.
Alternate names   Munda, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Horo
Dialects Hasada, Latar, Naguri, Kera.

 

Mundari

HELLO  
HOW  ARE YOU  
YES  
I'M  WELL  
GOOD  
AND  YOU  
THANK YOU  
NO  
GOOD  MORNING  
GOOD  EVENING  
GOOD  NIGHT  
ENOUGH  
   
'TILL WE  SEE  EACH OTHER AGAIN  
ARE YOU AN MUNDA  
DO YOU SPEAK MUNDARI  
I SPEAK "SOME" MUNDARI  
I UNDERSTAND "SOME" MUNDARI  
ONE  
TWO  
THREE  
FOUR  
FIVE  
SIX  
SEVEN  
EIGHT  
NINE  
TEN  
FOOD  
MEAT  
BEEF  
BACON  
POTATOES  
BREAD  
BISCUITS  
BUTTER  
GRAVY  
BEANS  
GREEN  BEANS  
SUGAR , CANDY  
HONEY , HONEY BEE , SYRUP  
CAKE , SWEET  
I'M HUNGRY  
I'M GOING TO EAT  
I HAVE EATEN  
I WILL EAT LATER  
I'M EATING  
HE  \  SHE IS EATING  
THEY ARE EATING  
DO YOU WANT TO EAT  
HE  \  SHE WILL EAT  
WHAT AM I EATING  
YOU EAT  
WHAT ARE WE EATING  
   
   
   
   
MAN  
MEN  
WOMAN  
WOMEN  
BOY  
BOYS  
GIRL  
GIRLS  
FATHER  
MOTHER  
GRANDFATHER  
GRANDMOTHER  
 

 

 

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