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A society that has been
built by instinct, habitat and learning. Choosing to move in
social groups is a decision based on survival. Whether
migrating in groups to find safety in numbers, or to further
exploit a food source, or even to defend themselves and
their resources better against competitors - survival is the
fundamental function of sociability. One concomitant of the
tribal instinct is that individuals of species that
herd together for security tend to favour 'flight'
(towards the herd) rather than to 'fight' a threat.
the Early Vedic Period (beginning about 1500 BC) several
kingdoms existed in the Bihar plain.
In about 475 BC the capital of the Magadha empire was
located at Pataliputra (modern Patna), where it remained
under Asoka (emperor of India from about 273 to 232 BC) and
the Guptas (a dynasty of emperors who ruled India in the 4th
and 5th centuries AD) until the onslaught of the Hupas in
the middle and late 5th century. In the 6th–7th century AD
the city was devastated by the migration of the Son River;
the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang recorded that in AD 637 the
city had few inhabitants. It regained some of its glory, but
it is doubtful that it ever served as the capital of the
Pala empire (which lasted from about 775 to 1200). During
the ensuing Muslim period (about 1200 to 1765), Bihar had
little independent history, remaining a provincial unit
until 1765, when it came under British rule and—together
with Chota Nagpur—was merged with the state of Bengal.
Originally, Chota Nagpur was mostly forest-clad and was
ruled by chiefs of various aboriginal tribes. Though British
authority was only gradually established in the plains to
the north during the second half of the 18th and the
beginning of the 19th century, occasional revolts against
them took place in Chota Nagpur, the most important being
the Ho revolt of 1820 to 1827 and the Munda uprising of 1831
to 1832. Later, Bihar was an important centre of the Indian
mutiny and revolt of 1857 to 1859 against British political
authority. Bihar formed a part of the Bengal Presidency
until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was
formed; in 1936 the two became separate provinces.
Upon India's independence in 1947, Bihar became a
constituent part (becoming a state in 1950), and in 1948 the
small states of Saraikela and Kharsawan were merged with it.
In 1956, when the Indian states were reorganized on a
linguistic basis, a territory of some 3,140 square miles was
transferred from Bihar to West Bengal. In 1990, for the
first time since independence, a state government was
elected from a party other than that controlling the
Most tribal villages have a dancing floor, a sacred grove
(sarna—where worship is offered by a village priest), and a bachelor's
dormitory (dhumkuria). The haat or weekly market, plays an important part
in tribal economy. Tribal festivals (such as Sarhul), a spring festival (Sohrai),
and a winter festival (Mage Parab) are occasions of great festivity.
Tribal culture is fast changing under the impact of external influences,
such as Christianity, industrialization, new communication links, tribal
welfare programs, and community development projects.
We are looking for Information on Origin and evolution of each tribe/gotra. If
you think you can contribute - please get in touch with us.
of Festivals in